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Evolution of Operating System

Evolution of Operating System

Operating System
An  OS is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. All computer programs, excluding firmware, require an operating system to function.

Types of Operating System

Single- and multi-tasking

A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency. This is achieved by time-sharing, dividing the available processor time between multiple processes that are each interrupted repeatedly in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system.

Single- and multi-user

Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, and the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources to multiple users.


A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.


In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system, then saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, and is common in large server warehouses.


Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.




A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts

A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries. These libraries are composed with the application and configuration code to construct unikernels  which are specialized, single address space, machine images that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments.
                                  Evolution of Operating Systems
The evolution of operating systems is directly dependent to the development of computer systems and how users use them. Here is a quick tour of computing systems through the past fifty years in the timeline.

Early Evolution

1945: ENIAC, Moore School of Engineering, University of Pennsylvania.

1949: EDSAC and EDVAC
1949: BINAC - a successor to the ENIAC
1951: UNIVAC by Remington
1952: IBM 701
1956: The interrupt
1954-1957: FORTRAN was developed




Operating Systems by the late 1950s

By the late 1950s Operating systems were well improved and started supporting following usages. It was able to Single stream batch processing. It could use Common, standardized, input/output routines for device access. Program transition capabilities to reduce the overhead of starting a new job was added. Error recovery to clean up after a job terminated abnormally was added. Job control languages that allowed users to specify the job definition and resource requirements were made possible.


Operating Systems in 1960s

1961: The dawn of minicomputers
1962: Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) from MIT
1963: Burroughs Master Control Program (MCP) for the B5000 system
1964: IBM System/360
1960s: Disks become mainstream
1966: Minicomputers get cheaper, more powerful, and really useful
1967-1968: The mouse
1964: and onward: Multics
1969: The UNIX Time-Sharing System from Bell Telephone Laboratories




Supported OS Features by 1970s

Multi User and Multi-tasking was introduced. Dynamic address translation hardware and Virtual machines came into picture. Modular architectures came into existence Personal, interactive systems came into existence.

Accomplishments after 1970

1971: Intel announces the microprocessor
1972: IBM comes out with VM the Virtual Machine Operating System
1973: UNIX 4th Edition is published
1973: Ethernet
1974: The Personal Computer Age begins
1974: Gates and Allen wrote BASIC for the Altair
1976: Apple II
August 12, 1981: IBM introduces the IBM PC
1983: Microsoft begins work on MS-Windows
1984: Apple Macintosh comes out
1990: Microsoft Windows 3.0 comes out
1991: GNU/Linux
1992: The first Windows virus comes out
1993: Windows NT

And the research and development work still goes on, with new operating systems being developed and existing ones being improved to enhance the overall user experience while making operating systems fast and efficient like they have never been before.
                              Evolution of Windows Operating System
The following details the history of MS-DOS and Windows operating systems designed for personal computers (PCs).


MS-DOS Microsoft Disk Operating System (Aug 1981)

MS-DOS ( Microsoft Disk Operating System) is a discontinued operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft. It was the most commonly used member of the DOS family of operating systems, and was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system by Microsoft Corporation.

Windows OS MS-DOS
It is a single user operating system and is a command user interface (CUI). It interprets commands typed on the DOS mode. A special POWER programs helps to conserve the battery power when all the application and hardware devices are sitting idle.

Versions of MS-DOS
·         MS-DOS 1.x
·         Version 1.10 (OEM) – possible basis for IBM's Personal Computer DOS 1.0
·         Version 1.11 (OEM) – possible basis for IBM's Personal Computer DOS 1.0
·         Version 1.14 (OEM) – possible basis for IBM's Personal Computer DOS 1.0
·         Version 1.24 (OEM) – basis for IBM's Personal Computer DOS 1.1
·         Version 1.25 (OEM) – basis for non-IBM OEM versions of MS-DOS, including SCP MS-DOS 1.25
·         Compaq-DOS 1.12, a Compaq OEM version of MS-DOS (1.25 or higher)
·         Zenith Z-DOS 1.19, a Zenith OEM version of MS-DOS (1.25 or higher)

·         MS-DOS 2.x Support for 10 MB hard disk drives, FAT-16, user installable device drivers and tree-structure filing system
·         Version 2.0 (OEM), First version to support 5.25 inch, 360 kB floppy drives and diskettes.
·         Version 2.1 (OEM)
·         Version 2.11 (OEM)
·         Altos MS-DOS 2.11, an Altos OEM version of MS-DOS 2.11 for the ACT-86C
·         TeleVideo PC DOS 2.11, an TeleVideo OEM version of MS-DOS 2.11

·         MS-DOS 3.x
·         Version 3.0 (OEM) – First version to support 5.25 inch, 1.2 MB floppy drives and diskettes.
·         Version 3.1 (OEM) – Support for Microsoft Networks
·         Version 3.2 (OEM) – First version to support 3.5 inch, 720 kB floppy drives and diskettes.
·         Version 3.21 (OEM)
·         Version 3.22 (OEM) – (HP 95LX)
·         Version 3.25 (OEM)
·         Version 3.3 (OEM) – First version to support 3.5 inch, 1.44 MB floppy drives and diskettes.
·         Version 3.3a (OEM)
·         Version 3.31 (OEM) – supports FAT16B and larger drives.

·         MS-DOS 4.0 (multitasking) and MS-DOS 4.1 
A separate branch of development with additional multitasking features, released between 3.2 and 3.3, and later abandoned. It is unrelated to any later versions, including versions 4.00 and 4.01 listed below.

·         MS-DOS 4.x (IBM-developed) – includes a graphical/mouse interface. It had many bugs and compatibility issues.
·         Version 4.00 (OEM) – First version to support a single hard disk partition that is greater than 32 MB and up to a maximum size of 2GB.
·         Version 4.01 (OEM) – Microsoft rewritten Version 4.00 released under MS-DOS label but not IBM PC DOS. First version to introduce volume serial number when formatting hard disks and floppy disks (Disk duplication also and when using SYS to make a floppy disk or a partition of a hard drive bootable).
·         Version 4.01a (OEM)

·         MS-DOS 5.x
·         Version 5.0 (Retail) – includes a full-screen editor. A number of bugs required re issue. First version to support 3.5 inch, 2.88 MB floppy drives and diskettes. Hard disk partitions greater than 32MB and up to a maximum size of 2GB was now provided by the MS-DOS kernel. First version to load portions of the operating system into the high memory area.
·         AST Premium Exec DOS 5.0 (OEM) – a version for the AST Premium Exec series of notebooks with various extensions, including improved load-high and extended codepage support
·         Version 5.0a (Retail) – With this release, IBM and Microsoft versions diverge.
·         Version 5.50 (Windows NTVDM) – All Windows NT 32-bit versions ship with files from DOS 5.0
·         MS-DOS 6.x
·         Version 6.0 (Retail) – Online help through QBASIC. Disk compression, upper memory optimization and antivirus included.
·         Version 6.2 – Scandisk as replacement for CHKDSK. Fix serious bugs in DBLSPACE.
·         Version 6.21 (Retail) – Stacker-infringing DBLSPACE removed.
·         Version 6.22 (Retail) – New DRVSPACE compression.
·         MS-DOS 7.x
·         Version 7.0 (Windows 95, Windows 95A) – Support for VFAT long file names and 32-bits signed integer errorlevel. New editor. JO.SYS is an alternative filename of the IO.SYS kernel file and used as such for "special purposes". JO.SYS allows booting from either CD-ROM drive or hard disk. Last version to recognize only the first 8.4 GB of a hard disk. The "ver" internal command prompt reports the Windows version, 4.00.950.
·         Version 7.1 (Windows 95B – Windows 98  Windows 98SE) – Support for FAT32 file system. Last general purpose DOS to load Windows. The "ver" internal command prompt reports the Windows version, 4.00.1111, 4.10.1998 or 4.10.2222.
·         MS-DOS 8.0
·         Version 8.0 (Windows ME) – Integrated drivers for faster Windows loading. Four different kernels (IO.SYS) observed. The "ver" internal command prompt reports the Windows version, 4.90.3000.
·         Version 8.0 (Windows XP) – DOS boot disks created by XP and later contain files from Windows ME. The "ver" internal command prompt reports the Windows version, 5.0.

Evolution of Windows Operating System

Windows 1.0 – 2.0 (1985-1992)

Introduced in 1985,  Microsoft Windows 1.0 was named due to the computing boxes, or "windows" that represented a fundamental aspect of the operating system. Instead of typing MS-DOS commands, windows 1.0 allowed users to point and click to access the windows.In 1987 Microsoft released Windows 2.0, which was designed for the designed for the Intel 286 processor. This version added desktop icons, keyboard shortcuts and improved graphics support.


Windows 3.0 – 3.1 (1990–1994)

Windows 3.0 was released in May, 1900 offering better icons, performance and advanced graphics with 16 colors designed for Intel 386 processors. This version is the first release that provides the standard "look and feel" of Microsoft Windows for many years to come. Windows 3.0 included Program Manager, File Manager and Print Manager and games (Hearts, Minesweeper and Solitaire). Microsoft released Windows 3.1 in 1992.


Windows 95 (August 1995)


Windows OS - Windows 95
Windows 95 was released in 1995 and was a major upgrade to the Windows operating system. This OS was a significant advancement over its precursor, Windows 3.1. In addition to sporting a new user interface, Windows 95 also includes a number of important internal improvements. Perhaps most important, it supports 32-bit applications, which means that applications written specifically for this operating system should run much faster. Although Windows 95 can run older Windows and DOS applications, it has essentially removed DOS as the underlying platform. This has meant removal of many of the old DOS limitations, such as 640K of main memory and 8-character filenames. Other important features in this operating system are the ability to automatically detect and configure installed hardware (plug and play).









Windows 98 (June 1998)

Windows 98 offers support for a number of new technologies, including FAT32, AGP, MMX, USB, DVD, and ACPI. Its most visible feature, though, is the Active Desktop, which integrates the Web browser (Internet Explorer) with the operating system. From the user's point of view, there is no difference between accessing a document residing locally on the user's hard disk or on a Web server halfway around the world.

Windows ME - Millennium Edition (September 2000)

The Windows Millennium Edition, called "Windows Me" was an update to the Windows 98 core and included some features of the Windows 2000 operating system. This version also removed the "boot in DOS" option.


Windows NT 31. - 4.0 (1993-1996)

A version of the Windows operating system. Windows NT (New Technology) is a 32-bit operating system that supports preemptive multitasking. There are actually two versions of Windows NT: Windows NT Server, designed to act as a server in networks, and Windows NT Workstation for stand-alone or client workstations. 


Windows 2000 (February 2000)

Often abbreviated as "W2K," Windows 2000 is an operating system for business desktop and laptop systems to run software applications, connect to Internet and intranet sites, and access files, printers, and network resources. Microsoft released four versions of Windows 2000: Professional (for business desktop and laptop systems), Server (both a Web server and an office server), Advanced Server (for line-of-business applications) and Datacenter Server (for high-traffic computer networks).
Windows OS - Windows 2000




Windows XP (October 2001)

Windows XP was released in 2001. Along with a redesigned look and feel to the user interface, the new operating system is built on the Windows 2000 kernel, giving the user a more stable and reliable environment than previous versions of Windows. Windows XP comes in two versions, Home and Professional.  Microsoft focused on mobility for both editions, including plug and play features for connecting to wireless networks. The operating system also utilizes the 802.11x wireless security standard. Windows XP is one of Microsoft's best-selling products.


Windows Vista (November 2006)

Windows Vista offered an advancement in reliability, security, ease of deployment, performance and manageability over Windows XP. New in this version was capabilities to detect hardware problems before they occur, security features to protect against the latest generation of threats, faster start-up time and low power consumption of the new sleep state. In many cases, Windows Vista is noticeably more responsive than Windows XP on identical hardware. Windows Vista simplifies and centralizes desktop configuration management, reducing the cost of keeping systems.


Windows 7 (October, 2009)

Windows 7 was released by Microsoft on October 22, 2009 as the latest in the 25-year-old line of Windows operating systems and as the successor to Windows Vista (which itself had followed Windows XP). Windows 7 was released in conjunction with Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 7's server counterpart. Enhancements and new features in Windows 7 include multi-touch support, Internet Explorer 8, improved performance and start-up time, Aero Snap, Aero Shake, support for virtual hard disks, a new and improved Windows Media Center, and improved security.


Windows 8 (Aug 2012)

Windows OS - Windows 8
Windows 8 was released on August. 1, 2012 and is a completely redesigned operating system that's been developed from the ground up with touchscreen use in mind as well as near-instant-on capabilities that enable a Windows 8 PC to load and start up in a matter of seconds rather than in minutes.Windows 8 will replace the more traditional Microsoft Windows OS look and feel with a new "Metro" design system interface that first debuted in the Windows Phone 7 mobile operating system. The Metro user interface primarily consists of a "Start screen" made up of "Live Tiles," which are links to applications and features that are dynamic and update in real time.  Windows 8 supports both x86 PCs and ARM processors.







Windows 10 (July 2015)

Windows 10 is Microsoft's Windows successor to Windows 8. Windows 10 debuted on July 29, 2015, following a "technical preview" beta release of the new operating system that arrived in Fall 2014 and a "consumer preview" beta in early 2015. Microsoft claims Windows 10 features fast start up and resume, built-in security and the return of the Start Menu in an expanded form. This version of Windows will also feature Microsoft Edge, Microsoft's new browser. Any qualified device (such as tablets, PCs, smartphones and Xbox consoles) can upgrade to Windows 10, including those with pirated copies of Windows.

                            Evolution of Mac Operating System
Early Evolution of Mac Operating System
1984 - System 0.85, 216 kbyte in size, first time with MFS file system
1985 - System 2.0, updates and improvements like the Finder and menu
1986 - System 3.0, contains optimizations, first time with HFS file system
1987 - System 4.0, bug fixes
1987 - System 4.1, improved Finder (supports HDD >32 mbyte)
1988 - System 6, 32-bit color, Quickdraw support, serial port driver support, Truetype fonts
1990 - System 7, 32-bit memory addressing on supported hardware, first time with virtual memory, updated GUI
1994 - System 7.5
1997 - Mac OS 7.6
1997 - Mac OS 8.0
1998 - Mac OS 8.1, 32-Bit, file system HFS+, only limited memory protection, USB and Firewire on supported hardware
1998 - Mac OS 8.5.1, Sherlock search files on hard disks and on the internet, intranet updates
1999 - Mac OS 8.6, multi-processor capable
1999 - Mac OS 9 (sonata), Sherlock 2 can handle files with size up to 2 tbyte, user profiles (multiple users)
2001 - Mac OS 9.1
1999 - Mac OS X Server, Mach- Kernel 2.5 (Unix- derivated microkernel) better performance and stability
1999 - March - Mac OS X Server 1.0
Mac OS X Public Beta (Feb 2000)
OS X has been known over the years for its simplicity, aesthetic interface, advanced technologies, applications, security and accessibility options. From the Finder to Spotlight, the Dock to iCloud, OS X has been integrated into Apple's hardware, as well as iOS devices, so users can easily work and navigate.

Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah (March 2001)
The system requirements for Mac OS X 10.0 were not well received by the Macintosh community, as at the time the amount of RAM standard with Macintosh computers was 64 megabytes (MB), while the Mac OS X 10.0 requirements called for 128 MB of RAM. In addition, processor upgrade cards, which were quite popular for obsolete pre-G3 Power Macintosh computers, were not supported (and never officially have been, but can be made to work through third-party utility programs). Additionally the new operating system required more hard drive space, causing longer boot times.It takes 800MB space in HD for Installation.

Mac OS X 10.1 Puma (Sep 2001)
It provided faster menu navigation and log-in as well as configurable options, such as a movable Dock and new system menus with controls for volume, battery life and AirPort access on the menu bar. iTunes was bundled with OS X 10.1 with CD burning capabilities, DVD playback and support for third-party digital cameras and MP3 players, RAM required 128MB and it takes 1.5GB space in after installation.

Mac OS 10.2 Jaguar (May 2002)
Mac OS X Jaguar required a PowerPC G3 or G4 CPU and 128 MB of RAM. Special builds were released for the first PowerPC G5 systems released by Apple. Mac OS X Jaguar introduced many new features to the Mac OS that remain to this day, including MPEG-4 support in QuickTime, Address Book, Inkwell for handwriting recognition, and Apple Mail. It als0included the first release of Apple's Zeroconf implementation.

Mac OS 10.3 Panther (June 2003)
It included Expose, a useful feature that let users instantly view all open windows at once, view windows of a current program or just view files on the desktop. It required 1.5GB space in HD for installation and at least 128MB of RAM. It has PowerPC G3, G4, or G5 processor with 333MHz faster speed. and the internet access speed was 100kbps.

Mac OS 10.4 Tiger (May 2004)
It was most popular version of Mac OS before. It included a universal search client, Spotlight, which allowed users to search their entire system from the menu bar for files, emails, contacts, images, calendars and applications. Dashboard featured widgets for weather, flight information, stock tickers and more. It requires 256GB RAM and 3GB space in HD for installation.

Mac OS 10.5 Leopard (Oct 2007)
Apple introduced OS X Leopard at WWDC 2006, and it became a redefining moment for its software, since it was noted to be the largest update of OS X. It featured a modernized look with a three-dimensional, reflective Dock, a semitransparent menu bar, larger drop shadows for active windows and new high-resolution icons. It requires 512MB RAM and 9GB space in HD for installation.

Mac OS 10.6 Snow Leopard (June 2009)
Mac OS X Snow Leopard (version 10.6) is the seventh major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. Mac computer with an Intel processor (IA-32). "Yonah" processors such as Core Solo and Core Duo can run only 32-bit applications; later x86-64 architecture processors such as Core 2 Duo, Core i5 and i7 are also able to run 64-bit applications. 1GB RAM and 5GB of HD space requires for installation.

Mac OS 10.7 Lion (Oct 2010)
It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications called Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta, making it incompatible with PowerPC applications.

Mac OS 10.8 Mountain Lion (July 2012)
 It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center, support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal (which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app). It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud. 2GB of memory is required.






Mac OS 10.9 Mavericks (Oct 2013)

It was a free upgrade to all users running Snow Leopard or later with a 64-bit Intel processor. Its changes include the addition of the previously iOS-only Maps and iBooks applications, improvements to the Notification Center, enhancements to several applications, and many under-the-hood improvements.


Mac OS 10.10 Yosemite (Oct 2014)

 It features a redesigned user interface similar to that of iOS 7, intended to feature a more minimal, text-based 'flat' design, with use of translucency effects and intensely saturated colors.[175] Apple's showcase new feature in Yosemite is Handoff, which enables users with iPhones running iOS 8.1 or later to answer phone calls, receive and send SMS messages, and complete unfinished iPhone emails on their Mac.


Mac OS 10.11 Capitan (Sep 2015)

Similar to Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, Apple described this release as containing "refinements to the Mac experience" and "improvements to system performance" rather than new features. Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection. The Metal API, first introduced in iOS 8, was also included in this operating system for "all Macs since 2012".


Mac OS 10.12 Sierra (June 2016)

macOS Sierra (version 10.12) is the thirteenth major release of macOS (previously OS X), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers macOS Sierra requires at least 2GB of RAM and 8GB of storage space and will run on. Sierra brings with it a variety of changes, most notably the arrival of Siri on the Mac desktop. Siri appears in the upper right-hand corner of the menu bar between the Notification Center and Spotlight menu icons and can be triggered via a Dock icon, the menu bar icon or a hot key.